Consisting of both the personal and professional papers generated and gathered in the course of his life, the Fred Eugene collection documents the life of a man raised in the American West with a strong appreciation for natural history and biology. He subsequently traded in these interests for a career in physical education. The papers reflect his education in the West, at Oberlin College, and at The College of Physicians and Surgeons. Leonard used his education, particularly his medical degree to provide legitimacy for the burgeoning physical education movement in American colleges and universities. The voluminous research files--compiled while working on the history of physical education--chronicle the development of physical education and ultimately foretell Leonard's role as an innovator and renown expert on the history and theory of physical education. The collection is organized around eight record series: 1. Correspondence; 2. Diaries and Chronology; 3. Education and Training Records; 4. Instructional and Teaching Material; 5. Professional Associations; 6. Writings and Research Material; 7. Miscellany and Ephemera; and 8. Photographs.
Both personal and professional correspondence is included in Series 1. The bulk of the correspondence is incoming, although Leonard's correspondence with his wife consists of outgoing letters. Other members of his family are represented including his maternal grandfather, both parents, and his siblings. His professional correspondence is interspersed with the names of giants in the field of physical education, including Dudley Allen Sargent (1849-1924), Thomas D. Wood (1865-1951 , A.B. 1888), Luther Halsey Gulick (1868-1918, Academy 1880-86, and brother of Mrs. Frank Fanning Jewett), and Nils Posse (1862-1905). A portion of his professional correspondence consists of replies to biographical queries sent to these men.
A rich picture of the man appears through his numerous diaries and journals in which are meticulously recorded all dates and events in his life. A chronological index describes where he was during any given year. The chronology is fleshed out by his diary entries which chronicle his training, travel and study. Some genealogical information regarding his parentage is included within his chronology. The thirty diaries span from his days in Utah up to his death in 1922.
A portrait of Leonard's education and career preparation emerges through his student compositions and lecture notes. His early years are outlined in records of the Agassiz Association he helped form, and records of his preparatory work at the Salt Lake Academy in Utah, and his early teaching positions in Park City, Utah, and Oxford, Idaho. His student compositions belie his interests in history and botany, and demonstrate his sharp intellect, evident at an early age. The richest records are his lecture notes, taken at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. These notes, complete with his illustrations, offer tremendous insight into the nature of medical science in 1890. Lecture notes from work taken under Nils Posse suggests the influence that this work had on his later career.
Instructional and teaching records document his pedagogical methodology at Oberlin College, where he began instruction while still a student in the late 1880s. Included are account books and attendance records, which record all the names of his pupils as well as indicating what exercises were completed and attempted. Anthropometric study guides and records underscore the predominant mindset of the time toward physical education and fitness. An extensive collection of catalogs and bulletins from other colleges serves to illustrate the pioneering role taken by Oberlin College in regard to peer institutions. Leonard's lecture notes contain a mixture of historic material, including magazine articles and booklets, as well as his handwritten notes and occasional outlines. Lecture topics include such subjects as "air," "nutrition," "hygiene," and "communicable diseases." Lantern slides of gymnasiums, equipments, and pioneers in the field used to accompany his lectures and presentations are also included among his teaching files.
Related to his teaching files are his records from professional associations. The majority of the professional associations pertain to physical education, although associations such as the National Education Association can be found here as well. The most interesting records are found in the files of the Ohio Physical Education Association, a body which he help to create in 1895.
Quantity-wise, the bulk of the collection is comprised of his research files used to produce his frequent articles and publications. The research files are centered around his two major publications, Pioneers of Modern Physical Education (1915), and Guide to the History of Physical Education (1923). Approximating the table of contents of each work, these files document the thorough method in which Leonard conducted research. His voluminous handwritten notes attest to wide exposure to physical education literature in multiple languages. Included among his notes are many original source materials such as early catalogs and articles from medical journals and popular periodicals of the day. Several of his published articles as well as a proof of his Guide precede his research files. Also included are some of the illustrations used in his publications.
The remainder of the collection consists of photographs and miscellany which documents Leonard's numerous interests. Included are photographs and records of his camping trips (his diary for the corresponding period should be cross referenced), maps, and drawings which indicate a fair degree of artistic ability.
Series 1. Correspondence, 1874-1923 (1.2 linear feet)
Primarily consists of the incoming correspondence received by Fred E. Leonard, both personal and professional. Correspondence includes courtship letters and subsequent letters written by Leonard to his wife Bertha M. Hopkins between 1907 and 1921, and Bertha's letters to Fred from 1912 to 1920. Family correspondence from Leonard's grandfather, parents, and siblings dating from 1878 to 1903 is located here along with general correspondence. Leonard's professional correspondence illustrates his important role as a pioneer and historian of the physical education movement. Notable correspondents include Luther Halsey Gulick (1865-1918, Academy 1880-86), Frank Fanning Jewett (1844-1906), Nils Posse (1862-1905), R.A. Millikan (1868-1953, A.B. 1891, A.M. 1893), and Thomas D. Wood (1865-1951, A.B. 1888).
Series 2. Diaries and Chronology, 1866-1922 (0.8 l.f.)
Leonard was an inveterate diarist as evidenced in over thirty journals and diaries. The entries are detailed, reporting on weather, work completed, meals, and recreation. Symbols are often used to represent words in his abbreviated style, such as "\" to represent "the." A chronology written on index cards provides an exhaustive summary of where he was each year, including visits and trips. The material is arranged chronologically.
Series 3. Education and Training Records, 1882-93 (1.0 l.f.)
Contains lecture notes, student compositions, and printed programs illustrating Leonard's education. Included is material from his preparatory work at the Salt Lake Academy in Utah, and documentation of his experience as a teacher at Park City, Utah and Oxford, Idaho. Lecture notes from his medical school courses offer insight into the nature of medical training in the 1890s. The Nils Posse lecture notes indicate the influence of Posse on Leonard's thinking. Arranged chronologically.
Series 4. Instructional and Teaching Material, 1882-1922 (4.4 l.f.)
Consists of account books, administrative files, lecture notes, and lantern slides with index cards. The majority of the documentation pertains to his work as professor of hygiene and physical education, and is comprised of files of background articles, notes, some lecture outlines, and lantern slides which accompanied his presentations. Interest in physical education at peer institutions is evidenced in the large number of catalogs and bulletins from other schools. Arranged in four alphabetical subseries: 1. Account and Attendance Books; 2. Administrative Files, 3. Lecture Notes, and 4. Lantern Slides and Index Cards.
Series 5. Professional Associations, 1886-1922 (1.2 l.f.)
Consists of records and minutes of the numerous professional associations to which Leonard belonged. Primarily physical education societies, the files serve to underscore his importance to the field of Physical education. Included are records of the Ohio Physical Education Association which he helped organize in 1895. Arranged alphabetically by name of association.
Series 6. Writings and Research Material, 1821-1932, 1947 (7.9 l.f.)
The materials in this series, which comprise the bulk of Leonard's research are arranged on the basis of his major works, Pioneers of Modern Physical Training, and Guide to the History of Physical Education. The documentation consists of magazine articles collected by Leonard, his handwritten notes, bibliographic notes, and original items such as an 1822 catalog from Alden Partridge's (1785-1854) military academy, and correspondence and signatures from early pioneers, including an 1821 letter from Partridge, and an undated item from Dio Lewis (1823-1886). (These files have been greatly disorganized since their creation, so the researcher is advised that files on a particular subject or person may be found in more than one location in the files. To the extent possible, this has been minimized.)
Series 7. Miscellany and Ephemera, 1880-1920 (1.4 l.f.)
Contains various and sundry items collected or created by Leonard. Included are diplomas and certificates, geological survey maps of Ohio and Yellowstone Park, The Prohibition Songster, 1886, childhood drawings and humor, receipts, passport documents from European travel as well as miscellaneous European concert programs.
Series 8. Photographs, 1889-1920 (0.4 linear feet)
Consists of Bertha Hopkins Leonard's college photo album c.1902, miscellaneous portraits of Fred Leonard, and photographs from camping trips to North Dakota (c.1913) and Yellowstone Park (1906). These items may have come from his brother Arthur Gray Leonard, as they contain notes in his hand on the reverse side. Miscellaneous and unidentified photographs round out the collection.